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The National Association of Parliamentarians (NAP), founded in 1930, is the largest international organization devoted to the study of Robert's Rules of Order.
Most NAP members are not professional parliamentarians, but are interested in learning more about parliamentary procedure. A short membership examination, based on Robert's Rules in Brief, is required to join.
Interested members may seek to obtain the credentials of Registered Parliamentarian (RP) and Professional Registered Parliamentarian (PRP).
Current membership: just over 5,000.
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Contact: OAP President Justin Pappano at email@example.com.
The American Institute of Parliamentarians (AIP), founded in 1958, has approximately 1,000 members.
AIP encourages the study of a number of parliamentary authorities, including:
Robert's Rules of Order, the AIP Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, and Cannon's Concise Guide to Rules of Order.
Most AIP members are not professional parliamentarians, but the AIP issues two credentials to those interested: Certified Parliamentarian (CP) and Certified Professional Parliamentarian (CPP). An additional 'Teacher' qualification is also available at either level.
Parliamentary Society of Toronto
[see separate resource listing].
The Parliamentary Society of Toronto (PST), established in 1986, is Chapter 51 of the American Institute of Parliamentarians. The Society typically meets in person at 5:45 pm on the first Tuesday of each month from September through May, to discuss and practice parliamentary procedure.
Visit our website for meeting details, information on how to join, links to parliamentary resources, and copies of previous member-presentations. Follow us on Twitter: @ParliaSocietyTO.
New members and guests are always welcome!
Contact: President Michael Kobzar c/o firstname.lastname@example.org
The Society of Clerks at the Table in Commonwealth Parliaments, founded in 1932, is intended to foster communication among clerks of parliaments and legislatures in Commonwealth jurisdictions. The website contains useful information, including full articles from the annual journal, The Table.
This is the site for the Standing Orders of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, Canada's most populous province. Unlike the federal Parliament, which consists of two legislative chambers (the House of Commons and the Senate), each of the ten provincial parliaments is unicameral, consisting of one assembly, based of course on the Westminster parliamentary model.
There are links on this website to individual members, status of legislation, committees, and the record of debates (called, as in most Westminster legislatures, Hansard).
This is the section of the Parliament of Canada website that contains the Standing Orders of the House of Commons (the permanent written rules under which the House regulates its proceedings), as well as a separate Annotated Standing Orders, which includes a concise commentary and brief history of each Standing Order.
The site also contains House of Commons Procedure and Practice (2017), which provides a complete description of the rules, practices and precedents developed and established since Confederation in 1867.
The Parliament of Canada is a bicameral body, consisting of two legislative chambers: the House of Commons and the Senate. This is the section of the parliamentary website that contains the Rules of the Senate (similar to the Standing Orders of the House of Commons), including: a Companion to the Rules, Speakers' Rulings, Procedural Notes, and a summary of Senate procedure in practice.
Like the Commons website, the Senate site has links to pages on individual members, the status of business, committees, and the record of debates (known as Hansard in both bodies).
Fair Vote Canada is a national organization advocating for Canada and its provinces to adopt proportional representation as an alternative to the current first-past-the-post electoral system (which enables governments to be elected with a majority of seats, despite earning less than a majority of the popular vote).
The Fair Vote website includes considerable resource material and research on the subject, although the current messaging of the organization, in my opinion, seems unnecessarily strident and hyper-partisan.
The Samara Centre for Democracy is a non-partisan charity dedicated to strengthening Canada’s democracy.
The Centre produces innovative, action-oriented research that illuminates the evidence and reforms needed to make Canadian politics more accessible, responsive, and inclusive.
A samara is the winged “helicopter" seed that falls from the maple tree. A symbol of Canada, it is also a reminder that from small seeds, big ideas can grow.
Founded in 2001, Equal Voice is a national, multi-partisan organization dedicated to electing more women to all levels of political office in Canada.
Equal Voice promotes the election of women by: working with all political parties to increase the nominations of women candidates; promoting electoral and other changes that would increase the numbers of women in politics; conducting outreach with young women; and encouraging women to run for office through programs such as the Equal Voice on-line campaign school.
The Congress of the United States consists of two legislative chambers - the Senate and the House of Representaives.
This is the section of the U.S. Senate website that includes the Senate's Standing Rules, as well as much additional reference material, including a comparison of the rules of procedure in the Senate and the House of Representatives.
This is the section of the U.S. House of Representatives website that includes the Rules of the House (one of the two chambers that comprise the United States Congress, the other being the Senate). The site includes manuals, special rules and committee rules.
Sir Thomas Erskine May, who became Clerk of the British House of Commons, produced his Treatise on the law, privileges, proceedings and usage of Parliament in 1844. The 25th edition was the first to be posted online (in 2019). It is fully searchable, and is free to use.
Known simply as Erskine May, it is an authoritative source for understanding how procedures have evolved.
This is the website of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the 'Mother of Parliaments' at Westminster, with separate sections devoted to both the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
There are links to the standing orders of both bodies, as well as other information on roles, procedures and debates.
Founded in 1944, the Hansard Society is a leading U.K. source of independent research and advice on Parliament and parliamentary affairs.
The Society takes its name from the official record of debates in Parliament, originating with Thomas C. Hansard (1776–1833), a London publisher who was the first formal printer to the Parliament at Westminster.
The History of Parliament is a research project creating a comprehensive account of parliamentary politics - first in England from the thirteenth century, and then in Great Britain from 1707, when the English and Scottish Parliaments were united. A not-for-profit trust established before the Second World War, the original objective of the project was to publish 'hard copies' of research studies, although a considerable amount of historical information is now available online, and various scholars contribute to a regular (and free) blog.
This is a website devoted to Canadian and Commonwealth political institutions and their history, including the role of the Crown.
Established and maintained by James Bowden, who writes a blog on these subjects, the site contains useful links to constitutional and government documents in Canada and its provinces, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand.
There are also links to blogs by scholars in Canada and other Commonwealth countries writing about Westminster parliamentary conventions, the Crown, electoral systems, and constitutional issues.
Seattle-based professional parliamentarian and former association executive Ann Macfarlane offers her services via an excellent website, on which she writes a regular blog about rules of order and parliamentary procedure.
The site also features an advice column ('Dear Dinosaur'), responding to enquiries from the public, as well as a number of free downloadable resources.
Well worth a visit.
Jason Robinson, a Toronto-area professional parliamentarian, writes an occasional blog for Sport Law, where he specializes in risk management, governance, meeting procedures, sponsorship, and strategic engagement.
Jason has written about virtual meetings and online voting, as well as other topics, informed by over 20 years of experience serving organizations in the public and not-for-profit sectors.
Parliamentarians Colette Trohan, Craig Henry, and Marie Wilson operate A Great Meeting, Inc., based in Maryland. Their website offers a number of free resources, including a series of one-page information sheets on parliamentary topics called 'Snippets'. Also available are downloadable forms and parliamentary crossword puzzles.
Based in Alabama, lawyer-parliamentarian Sarah Merkle offers parliamentary services under the name 'Civility', and writes a regular blog calted The Law of Order.
Her blog provides short summaries and useful advice on a variety of parliamentary topics.
Jim Slaughter is a lawyer and parliamentarian based in North Carolina. His website features a number of free resources, including charts, articles, and quizzes. Of particular note are links to news articles about Robert's Rules of Order, and a database to search for titles of parliamentary procedure journal articles. Jim also writes a regular blog.
Unlock Democracy Canada is a non-partisan, national campaign focused on democratic renewal and proportional government, to strengthen Canada’s democracy.
The organization targets what it believes is an archaic first-past-the-post voting system at the federal and provincial levels of government, and also advocates for ranked ballots in municipal elections.
After each election, the Unlock Democracy website shows how the actual results are distorted and fail to reflect what Canadians actually voted for.
The Ranked Ballot Initiative of Toronto (RaBIT) is an independent, grassroots, non-partisan organization campaigning to introduce ranked ballots in Toronto municipal elections, replacing the current first-past-the-post system.
Toronto City Council voted 14-11 in November 2019 to direct city staff to lay the groundwork for a potential change to ranked ballots for the 2022 civic election (subsequently changed to the 2026 election). This followed a 2015 reversal of an earlier decision to encourage the provincial government to allow municipal ranked-ballot elections.
Reform has been stalled for now by provincial legislation, adopted in 2020, to prevent municipalities from using ranked ballots.
Toronto-based Parliamentarian James Lochrie wrote Meeting Procedures: Parliamentary Law and Rules of Order for the 21st Century in 2003. A former President of the American Institute of Parliamentarians, Lochrie intended his book as a manual to be adopted by democratic organizations to help members advance 'the aims of the organization through good decision-making, supported by due process and procedure'.
It has been adopted by a number of municipal councils as their parliamentary authority. At 216 pages, it is a modern and simplified alternative to Robert's Rules of Order.